lundi 29 octobre 2007

LES GARANTIES AUTONOMES OU A PREMIERE DEMANDE


LES GARANTIES AUTONOMES OU LES GARANTIES À PREMIERE DEMANDE



Définition : C’est une garantie conventionnelle renforcée. Dès qu’il est sollicité, le garant doit immédiatement payer. Cette garantie ne possède pas de caractères accessoires.
La garantie efficace a été consacrée par l’Ordonnance du 23 mars 2006 qui a donné naissance à l’article 2321 du Code Civil.

La qualification des garanties autonomes

Pour déterminer la qualification, le critère fondamental est l’objet de l’engagement. Le garant va donc prendre l’engagement de payer une dette qui lui est personnelle. Cependant cet engagement ne doit pas avoir pour objet la dette du débiteur principal.

Les conditions de validité
La garantie est soumise au droit commun des contrats.

Article 2321 alinéa 1 dispose que : « La garantie autonome est l’engagement par lequel le garant s’oblige en considération d’une obligation souscrite par un tiers à verser une somme soit à une première demande soit suivant des modalités convenues.

4 conditions sont nécessaires :
* Le consentement : intègre, expresse et exempt de vices
Article 2321 Alinéa 2 du Code Civil : « le garant n’est pas tenu en cas d’abus ou de fraude manifeste du bénéficiaire ou de collusion de celui-ci avec le donneur d’ordre »
* La capacité et le pouvoir : le garant doit être capable car il engage son patrimoine. De plus, pour le pouvoir une protection existe avec l’article 1415 du Code Civil pour les époux ayant leurs biens en commun.
* L’objet : l’obligation du garant est de verser la somme d’argent préalablement fixée par le contrat de garantie.
* La cause : Il y a engagement du garant lorsqu’une relation contractuelle existe entre le bénéficiaire et le donneur d’ordre.

Les conditions de forme sont seulement requises à titre probatoire.

Les règles de preuve du droit commun s’appliquent quand l’engagement est supérieur à 1500 €. La garantie autonome doit être prouvée par écrit.

L’efficacité de la garantie autonome :

- Le principe : une obligation immédiate de paiement
Le garant doit payer dès lors que les conditions fixées dans la garantie sont réunies.

Exemples :
1°) la garantie à première demande documentaire : le garant précise qu’il paiera sur présentation de documents établissant l’inexécution du contrat de base.

2°) la garantie à première demande sur demande justifiée : le garant doit payer sur simple demande du bénéficiaire. Attention ! Il arrive que le bénéficiaire puisse réclamer la garantie alors que le contrat a été correctement exécuté.

- Les recours
Le recours du garant peut se faire, d’une part contre le donneur d’ordre où il lui réclamera le remboursement des sommes payées avec les intérêts. Il s’agira d’un recours personnel.
D’autre part, contre le bénéficiaire lorsque les sommes ont été indûment perçues.

Le recours du donneur d’ordre peut se faire, d’une part contre le bénéficiaire par une action en répétition de l’indu quand la garantie a été exécutée.
D’autre part, il peut aussi exercer un recours contre le garant si l’appel était abusif et qu’il pouvait réagir juridiquement.

Les exceptions au paiement immédiat
- Les exceptions découlant du contrat de garantie
Quand le contrat arrive à son terme, il n’est plus possible de faire jouer la garantie. Le bénéficiaire devra demander au garant de proroger sa garantie afin d’exiger le paiement la dette avant le terme du contrat.

- Les attributions jurisprudentielles
Il s’agit d’hypothèses de fraude par le créancier :
• L’utilisation ou le détournement d’une règle juridique pour d’obtenir des droits qu’il ne devrait pas jouir en temps normal
• La garantie sert à autre chose qu’au but initialement prévu
• Arrangement frauduleux entre créancier ou bénéficiaire
et donneur d’ordre

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